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Reservoir Characterization & Simulation : Naturally Fractured Reservoir
This course provides participants with the skills and understanding required to naturally fractured reservoirs. Natural fractured reservoirs hold both conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources.
This short course provides different approaches for evaluation and characterisation of heterogeneous naturally fractured reservoirs by wire-line log, core analysis and well testing. Different methods for Modelling and dynamic simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs and case histories will be reviewed including multiple porosity model with structured grids and single porosity with unstructured grids. Production data analysis of unconventional reservoirs will also be reviewed.
• Fracture definition.
• Reasons for generation of fractures.
• Storage capacity of matrix and fractures.
• Migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in fractured reservoirs.
Petrophysics and Rock Properties
• Use of sonic amplitude, variable density, dual-induction, laterolog, spontaneous potential, density correction curve, combination of sonic-neutron, combination of sonic density, combination of neutron core porosity, borehole televiewer, combination sonic- neutron-density, short and long normal, dip meter, production index, temperature, NMR and FMS/FMI/EMI logs in the evaluation of naturally fractured reservoirs.
• Cross-plotting techniques.
• Porosity exponent, m, in naturally fractured reservoirs.
• Water saturation exponent, n, in naturally fractured reservoirs.
• Water saturation in matrix, fractures and the composite system.
• P1/2 statistical analysis for calculating water saturation.
• Total, matrix, and fracture porosity.
• The uncertainty of calculating hydrocarbons-in-place.
• Fracture and effective system compressibility
• Capillary Pressure for fractured system
• Relative permeability for fractures, matrix and composite system
• Naturally fractured reservoirs interpretation
- Parameters lambda and omega
- Fracture permeability and fracture-matrix average permeability
- Fracture and total porosity
• Size of matrix blocks, effect of matrix block shape (Tectonic, regional and contracting fractures) and effect of partial secondary mineralization on pressure data
• Skin due to formation damage and pseudo-skin due to partial secondary mineralization within natural fractures
• Radius of investigation equation for fractured reservoirs
• Variable-rate build-up and drawdown
• Effect of a single sealing fault and faults intersecting at any angle on pressure data (fault-related natural fractures)
• Bounded reservoirs
• Horizontal wells, effect of x, y, z anisotropy
• Type Curves : Obtaining a good match
• Uniform flux vertical fracture
• infinite conductivity vertical fractures
• Finite conductivity vertical fractures
• Horizontal fractures
• Effective reservoir permeability and fracture half-length
• Dual porosity systems without and with hydraulic fractures.
• Dual porosity systems: Outer boundaries with or without pressure maintenance
• Dual porosity systems: Pressure Interference
• Gas Wells
Primary and Secondary Recovery
• Saturated and under-saturated reservoirs
• Material balance
• Gas-oil ratio and oil saturation equations for depletion and gas cap-drive reservoirs
• Water-drive reservoirs
• Well spacing
• Water and gas coning through fractures
• Production decline type curves
• Horizontal wells
• Gas injection
• Water injection
Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
• Grid Generation
• Double porosity model
• Double porosity double permeability model
• CBM Model
• Multiple porosity model
• Discrete fracture model
• Case Studies of shale gas reservoirs
• Automatic history matching
Supported By :
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